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Healthcare Dome: Skin Cancers

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Skin Cancers

SKIN CANCER

>Numerous types of tumor arises in the skin.Most skin tumors are benign and do not spread(metastasis)to othr body areas.
>some skin tumors ate malignant or cancerous and tend to invade other body areas.

WORDS TO REMEMBER
SKIN = The membranous tissues forming the external covering or integument of an animal and consisting in vertebrae of the epidermis or dermis.

3 MAJOR TYPES OF SKIN CANCER


*BASAL CELL CARCINOMA (BCC)
*SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (SCC)
*MELANOMA

RISK FACTOR;

*FAIR SKIN
*A HISTORY OF SUNBURN
*EXCESSIVE SUN EXPOSURE
*SUNNY OR HIGH ALTITUDE CLIMATE
*MOLES
*A FAMILY HISTORY OF SKIN CANCER.
*A PERSONAL HISTORY OF SKIN CANCER
* A WEAKNED IMMUNE SYSTEM
*EXPOSURE TO RADIATION
*EXPOSURE TO CERTAIN SUBSTANCES.


■BASAL CELL CARCINOMA■

> Slow -growing destructive skin tumo basal cell carcinoma.
>usually occur in person over age 40.
>it more prevalent in blond , fair-skinned males and most common malignant tumor affecting people.

CAUSES;

*PROLONG SUN EXPOSURE

*OTHER POSSIBLE CAUSE
>arsenic ingestion
>radiation exposure
>immunosuppression

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS;

*SMOOTH
*Pearly bump on the sun exposed skin to the head, neck or shoulder.
*small blood vessel maybe visible wthin the tumor.
*A central depression with crusting and bleeding (ulceration) frequently develop.
*often mistaken for a sore that doesn't heal.

DIAGNOSIS;

*INCISIONAL /EXCISIONAL BIOSPY
*HISTOLOGICAL STUDY

Note!
Treatment depending on the size , location and depth of the lesion.

CURETTAGE AND ELECTRODESICCATION= Good cosmetics result for small lesion.
TROPICAL FLUORUORACIL=used for superficial lesion.
MICROSCOPICALLY=Controlled surgical excision carefully removed the recurrent lesion until the tumor free plane is achieved.
IRRADIATION= used if tumor location requires it.
>for elderly and debilitated patient who might not withstand surgery.
*CRYOTHERAPY=With liquid nitrogen freezes and kill the cells.
*CHEMOTHERAPY= often necessary for persistent and recurrent lesion.




●SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA●

>Arising fron the keratinizing epidermal cell.
> grow rapidly and metastasize to adjacent lymph nodes if not removed

CAUSES;
Predisposing factor associated;
*over exposure to the sun
*ingestion of herbicides containing arsenic
*chronic skin irritation
*inflammation
*exposure to local carcinogen

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
*Commonly a well-defined,red scaling,thickened patch or sun exposed skin.
*may ulcerate and bleed
*lesion appear as a scaly ,reddened papule

DIAGNOSIS

EXCISIONAL BIOSPY

LABORATORY TEST

The size,shape,location and invasiveness of squamous cell tumor and condition of the underlying tissues determine the treatment method used.
Wide surgical excision.
electrodesiccation and curettage
radiation therapy
Chemotherapy

WORDS TO REMEMBER.!

☆ELECTRODESICCATION=drying up the tissue by high frequently electric current applied with a needle shape electrode.
☆CURETTAGE=Medical procedures to remove tissue by scraping or scooping.

●MELANOMA●

>cancer of melanocytes
>can benign whenever there is pigment.
>Developw from pigmented mole.

ABCD RULE FOR RECOGNIZING MELANOMA



A - (SYMMETRY) The two side of the pigmented spot or mole do not match.
B - (BORDER IRREGULARITY)= the border of the lesion are not smooth but exhibit indentation.
C -  (COLOR)= The pigmented spot contain areas of different color [black,brown ,tans and sometimes blue and red]
D -  (DIAMETER)= the spot is larger than 6mm in diameter.

CAUSES;

*EXCESSIVE EXPOSURE TO SUN LIGHT
*SKIN TYPE
*HORMONAL FACTOR
*FAMILY HISTORY
*PAST HISTORY OF MELANOMA

DIAGNOSIS;

*SKIN BIOSPY WTH HISTOLOGIC EXAM
*PHYSICAL EXAM
*CHEST X-RAY
*LABORATORY TEST
*CT SCAN
*SURGICAL RESECTION
*REGIONAL LYMPHADENETOMY
*CHEMOTHERAPHY
*BIOLOGICAL THERAPHY

PREVENTION:

Avoid sun during middle of the day.
Wear sunscreen year round
Wear protective clothing
Avoid tanning bed
Beware of sun-sensitizing medication.
check ur skin regurlary

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