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Healthcare Dome: Lung Cancer

Monday, May 5, 2014

Lung Cancer

LUNG CANCER;

>cancer that form in the tissues of the lung, usually in the cell lining air passage.
>develop within the wall or epithelium of the bronchial tree.

☆LUNGS☆




>refer to the two spongy organ in your chest that inhale oxygen and exhale or release carbon dioxide.

CAUSES OF LUNG CANCER;

Inhalation of carcinogenic pollutants by susceptible host.
Question; who is most susceptible?
Answer;smoker
*smoking is one cause of having lungs cancer.
*exposure to carcinogenic industrial.
*air pollutants such as;
>asbestos
>uranium
>nickel
>iron oxides
>chromium
>arsenic
>radioactive dust
>Coal dust


words to remember
CARCINOGENIC=refer to the ability to cause the development of a cancer.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS;

*early stage no symptom
*late stages;
With epidermoid and small cell.
>smoker cough
>hoarseness
>wheezing dyspnea
>hemolytic= expectoration of blood.
With adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma
>fever
>weakness
>weight loss
>anoxia
>shoulder pain
>hemolytic

WORDS TO REMEMBER
EPIDERMOID=Is a benign cyst usually found of the ski
ADENOCARCINOMA=cancer develop in glandular tissues.

TYPES OF LUNG CANCER

●SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER=occur almost exclusively in heavy smoker and less common than than non small cell lung cancer.

                                         A picture of lungs effected by Small cell lung cancer

● NON SMALL CELL LUNGS CANCER= is an umbrella term for several types of lungs cancer that behave in similar ways.

RISK FACTOR
*Exposure to secondhand smoker
*smoker
*exposure to radon gas
* exposure to asbestos and other chemical
*family history of lungs cancer

DIAGNOSIS;

*CHEST X-RAY
*SPUTUM CYTOLOGY=requires a specimen coughed up from the lungs and tracheobronchial tree.
*COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCAN (CT)=scan of the chest may help to delineate the tumor size.
*BRONCHOSCOPY=can locate the tumor site.
*NEEDLE BIOSPY= uses biplane fluoroscopic visual control to detect peripherally located tumor.
*TISSUE BIOSPY
*THORACENTESIS =allow chemical and cytologic examination of pleural fluid.

COMPLICATION.;

■SHORTNESS OF BREATH
>Block the major airway.
>also cause fluid to accumulate around the lungs, making it harder for the affected lungs to be expand fully when inhale.
■COUGHING UP BLOOD
>cause bleeding in the airway which can cause you to cough up blood. (HEMOPTYSIS)
■PAIN= advanced lung cancer that spread to the lining of the lung or to another area of the body such as bone
■FLUID IN THE CHEST
>cause shortness of breath
■METASTASIS
>cancer spread to other parts of the body.

STAGES OF LUNGS CANCER


●STAGE I
>limited to the lungs and hasn't spread to the lymph nodes.
>tumor size is smaller than 2 inches (5cm)across.
●STAGE II
>this stage may have grown larger 2 inches .
>cancer nag also have spread to the nearby lymph nodes.
●STAGE III
>tumor at this stage may have grown very large and invaded other lung as well.
>smaller tumor accompanied by cancer cells in lymph nodes farther away from the lungs.
●STAGE IV
>spread beyond the affected lung to the lungs or the distant areas of the body.
Tx;

■SURGERY
*unless the tumor is non resectable or other conditions rule out surgery.
*Excession is the primary treatment for stage I , stage II or selected stage III.
*may include partial removal of lungs.

WEDGE RESECTION=is a surgical procedures to remove triangle-shaped slice of tissue.
>Removal of tumor
SEGMENTAL RESECTION=surgical procedures to removed a parts or organs or glands.
LOBECTOMY=surgical excision of a lobe.
RADICAL LOBECTOMY.
PNEUNONECTOMY=excision of lungs tissues; it maybe total,partial or of a single lobe.

■RADIATION
*recommended for stage I, stage II and stage III
*generally, radiation therapy is delayed until 1 month of surgery to allow the wounds to be heal.
*high dosage radiation therapy or implants radiation.

■CHEMOTHERAPY



*combination of
>fluoruoracil
>vincristine
>mitomycin
>Cisplatin
>vindesine
*promising combination for treatment small cell carcinomas include
>cyclophosphamide
>doxorubicin
>vincristine
>etoposide with cisplatin, cyclophosphamide and doxorubucin.

■LASER THERAPY
Laser energy involves direction od laser energy through a bronchoscope to destroy the local tumor.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
Comprehensive supportive care and teaching a cancer patient can minimize complications and speed recovery from surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

Note;
Proper knowledge and awareness lead us to be healthy and fit..God bless u all!

image source : www.howcancerkills.com
                     www.nytimes.com
                     http://www.thetahealth.com/small-cell-lung-cancer/#.U2dbdPmSyGE

2 comments:

  1. thank you Vivian Ojada. I hope you had learned something out of this article

    ReplyDelete